Hawaiian Fishpond Bibliography

• Overview
• Curricula
• History & Legends
• Inventories & Site Surveys
• Restoration
   • Restoration-Molokai
• Studies
  • Studies-Circulation
  • Studies-Economic
  • Studies-Feeding

Lanikai Farms

Hawaiian Fishpond Bibliography

Compiled by Lori Ann Saeki


• Carlson, Norman K. Palaau and the Saltwater Fishponds of Moloka‘i. Honolulu: 1952.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 C37 1952a Hawaiian
Summary: This paper offers a descriptive and historical overview of Moloka‘i fishponds in general and Palaau in particular.

• Costa-Pierce, Barry A. “Aquaculture in Ancient Hawai‘i.” Bioscience 37, no. 5 (May 1987): 320-331.
UHM Call No: QH301.B57
Summary: This journal article provides an overview of Hawaiian fishponds, citing them as examples of integrated farming systems in ancient Hawai‘i. The author also offers examples of other historical and contemporary integrated farming systems around the world.

• Dieudonne, Fran ed. The Pacific Islands and the Sea: 350 Years of Reporting on Royal Fishponds, Coral Reefs and Ancient Walled Fish Weirs in Oceania. Encinitas, Calif.: Neptune House, 2002.
UHM Call No: SH157.85.F52 P33 2002
Summary: Dieudonne delves into the literature, seeking out references to fishponds and fishtraps throughout Oceania and compiles them in this volume. The chapter on Hawai‘i includes references to fishponds back to 1821.

Fishponds of Hawai‘i. Honolulu: State of Hawai‘i, Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1993.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 F58 1993 Hawaiian
Summary: Calendar produced by the state DLNR includes background information on Hawaiian fishponds, historic photos depicting fishponds in the early 20th century, and contemporary color photos showing the current status of several fishponds.

• Greene, Linda Wedel. A Cultural History of Three Traditional Hawaiian Sites on the West Coast of Hawai‘i Island. Denver: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, 1993.
Available online
Summary: Offers an overview of the Hawaiian history and culture, including a section on fishponds and fish traps. Includes description of fishponds at Pu‘ukohola Heiau National Historic Site and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park on the west coast of Hawai‘i.

Hawaii's Wildlife Heritage: Bringing Back the Fish. Prod. by Gary Sprinkle, dir. by May Lee Harvey. 30 min. KITV, 1993. Videocassette.
Sinclair Library: Wong AVC Videotape 8893
Summary: Television program looks at ways Hawaii’s fish population is being raised in nearshore waters and fishponds. Profiles Loko Kuamaka outside of Hana on Maui and the community's restoration efforts of the pond. Also looks at the Oceanic Institute's fish breeding program.

• Hawaiiweb.com. “Sites: Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds a.k.a. Royal Fish Ponds,”
Available online
Summary: This Web site targets sightseeing tourists and offers little information, but does present color photos of some of the fishponds along Molokai's southern shore.

• Henry, Lehman L. (Bud). He‘eia Fishpond = Loko I‘a O He‘eia: An Interpretive Guide for the He‘eia State Park Visitor. Kane‘ohe, Hi: Friends of He‘eia State Park, 1993.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian DU629.H44 H46 1993
Summary: This visitor's guide provides a wide breadth of introductory information for those new to Hawaiian fishponds. Includes descriptions of fishponds and fishpond production in general, and specific information about He‘eia Fishpond in Kane‘ohe Bay and the status of its restoration. Includes legends and chants of He‘eia as appendices.

• Kane, Herb Kawainui. Ancient Hawai‘i. Captain Cook, HI: The Kawainui Press, 1997.
UHM Call No: DU624.65 .K37 1997 Hawaiian
Summary: This colorfully illustrated overview of ancient Hawai‘i includes a chapter on traditional fishing methods, including a very brief description of fishponds.

• Kelly, Marion. “Dynamics of Production Intensification in Precontact Hawai‘i.” In What’s New? A Closer Look at the Process of Innovation, ed. Sander van der Leeuw and Robin Torrence, 82-106. London ; Boston : Unwin Hyman, 1989.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian GN741 .W46 1989
Summary: This article examines the processes through which Hawaiians increased agricultural production. Describes the techniques used to feed and maintain walled fishponds.

• Sea Grant College Program. “Hawaiian Fishponds.”
Available online
Summary: This Web site, developed in conjunction with fishpond circulation studies conducted through the University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant College Program, includes results from the studies conducted, lists of existing fishponds, and articles on fishpond circulation for download in PDF format.

• Summers, Catherine C. Hawaiian Fishponds. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1964.
UHM Call No: SH133 .H3 .S9
Summary: Offers an overview of the different types of Hawaiian fishponds and their construction and maintenance. Serves as a good introduction to the topic.

• Tamaru, Clyde S., Christine Carlstrom-Trick and Charles Helsley. “Aquaculture in Hawai‘i – Past, Present and Future.” In Open Ocean Aquaculture '97: Charting the Future of Ocean Farming: Proceedings of an International Conference, edited by Charles E. Helsley, 257-280. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant College Program, 1997.
UHM Call No: GC1 .U252 no. 98-08 Hawaiian
Summary: This conference paper provides an overview of aquaculture in Hawai‘i. Includes a brief description of historic Hawaiian fishponds as well as descriptions of contemporary aquaculture techniques.

• Titcomb, Margaret. Native Use of Fish in Hawai‘i. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai‘i, 1972.
UHM Call No: QL636.5.H3 .T57 1977
Summary: This book briefly addresses fishponds in the context of how Hawaiians raised, caught and prepared fish. In addition to the ponds themselves, Titcomb also describes some of the customs and rules governing the use of fish in general. Includes an extensive list of Hawaiian fish, including descriptions of the fish, their preparation, and legends associated with them.

• Vockeroth, David. The Hawaiian Fishpond (Loko Kuapa): Past and Present. University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 1981.
UHM Call No: SH35 .H3 V63 1981
Summary: This class paper provides a brief historical overview of Hawaiian fishponds and considers aspects of current fishponds. Examines impediments to fishpond growth, including cost estimates of running a contemporary fishpond.

• Wyban, Carol Araki. Tide and Current: Fishponds of Hawai‘i. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1992.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 W93 1992
Summary: Wyban, who maintained a fishpond with her husband for four years, describes the history and technology of ancient Hawaiian fishponds, and offers suggestions for ways to maximize fishpond use in the future. Includes in depth description of Lokoea, the fishpond the Wybans managed from 1981-1985.

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• Pacific American Foundation. Project Kahea Loko: "The Call of the Pond": A Teacher's Guide to Hawaiian Fishponds Grades 4-12. Honolulu: Pacific American Foundation, 2003.
UHM Call No: GC1 .H3833 no.03-01
Summary: This project seeks to incorporate Hawaiian fishponds as learning tools, guiding teachers through units on the physical setting of Hawaiian fishponds, life in a fishpond, early Hawaiian fishponds and fishponds today. Includes teaching materials and readings targeting different grade levels between grades 4-12.

Moloka‘i: Fishponds. Honolulu: Dept. of Education, Office of Instructional Services/General Education Branch, 1986.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian SH35.H3 M65 1986
Summary: Instructional module designed for an intermediate school audience includes activities that familiarize students with fishpond inhabitants and construction.

• Wyban, Carol Araki. Interpretive Materials for Huilua Fishpond, Kahana Valley State Park. Honolulu: State Parks Division, Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1992.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian SH35.H3 W9191992
Summary: This is a comprehensive educational guide to Huilua Fishpond designed for use in programs, guided tours and the classroom. Chapters cover a wide variety of topics from proper behavior at fishponds to history and legends of Huilua to diagrams of fish anatomy.

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History and Legends

‘Ualapu‘e, Moloka‘i: Oral Histories from the East End. Honolulu: Center for Oral History, 1991.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 U34 1991
Summary: This Center for Oral History project interviewed 12 current and former Moloka‘i residents about the history of ‘Ualapu‘e Fishpond, including fishing practices, pond maintenance and fish species in the pond, as well as contemporary efforts to restore the fishpond and life on the East End of Moloka‘i. In addition, the project includes an interview with fish farmer and fishpond scholar Carol Wyban for her technical knowledge. Two volumes of transcribed interviews available in UHM Call No: and interview recordings available separately in Hawaiian Collection.

• Beckley, Emma Metcalf. Hawaiian Fisheries and Methods of Fishing with an Account of the Fishing Implements Used by The Natives of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu: Advertiser Steam Print, 1883.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian SH319.H3 B43 1883a
Summary: This work describes various methods employed by native Hawaiians to catch fish. Includes a section on fish capture techniques in fishponds and fish traps.

• Clifford, Diana Malia. Loko I‘a O Hawai‘i: Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds and Their Changing Role in Society. B.A. thesis, Princeton, 1991.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 C55 1991a Hawaiian
Summary: This thesis describes the history of Hawaiian fishponds, considering their social symbolism, their role in religion and mythology, and changes brought on by changing monarchs and Western influence. It also explores the causes that led to the decline of fishponds.

• Davis, Bertell D. “In Memory of Pearl Harbor: The Losses Gone Unsung,” Environment Hawai‘i 2 (6) (December 1991).
Online e-journal
Summary: Offers an overview of environmental changes to Pearl Harbor resulting from U.S. Navy use, including the destruction of walled fish traps that once existed in the harbor.

• Handy, E.S. Craighill and Elizabeth Green Handy. Native Planters in Old Hawai‘i: Their Life, Lore and Environment. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1972.
UHM Call No: AM101 .B442 no.233 1991 Hawaiian
Summary: This book on agriculture in ancient Hawai‘i includes a section on the fishpond systems. In addition to information on Hawaiian fishponds available in the literature, this work includes original accounts from Native Hawaiians. The book also briefly touches on some of the myths associated with fishponds.

• Huber, Dale R. Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds of O‘ahu: A Bibliography of Map Resources. Honolulu: 1986.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 H82 1986a Hawaiian
Summary: This bibliography identifies maps that can be used to visually and chronologically display the evolution and destruction of Hawaiian fishponds. Maps cited range from 1825-1959. Also includes overview of fishponds and list of fish reared in the ponds.

• Kamakau, Samuel Manaiakalani. The Works of the People of Old = Na Hana a ka Po‘e Kahiko. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1976.
UHM Call No: DU624.65 .K35 1976 Hawaiian
Summary: Kamakau describes how Hawaiians traditionally cultivated fish in fishponds, detailing pond construction, maintenance and harvest. Also describes some of the rules associated with the fishponds.

• Kelly, Marion. Background History of Huilua Fishpond, Kahana Bay, Ko‘olauloa. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Department of Anthropology, 1979.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian DU629.K24 K45 1979
Summary: Kelly describes the history of Huilua Fishpond as detailed in interviews with those who lived near or helped maintain the pond. Includes descriptions of pond legends, fish catchment techniques, and tsunami that damaged the walls of the pond.

• Kelly, Marion. Brief History of Kawainui Fishpond and Associated Sites. Honolulu: Bishop Museum, Dept. of Anthropology, 1979.
UHM Call No: DU629.K295 K448 19791 Hawaiian
Summary: Kelly explores the history of Kawainui Fishpond in Kailua, O‘ahu, describing some of the legends associated with the pond and the importance of the location.

• Kelly, Marion. He‘eia Fishpond, a Testament to Hawaiian Fish-Farming Technology. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Dept. of Anthropology, 1976.
UHM Call No: DU629.H44 K455 Hawaiian
Summary: Kelly uses He‘eia Fishpond as a starting point to describe the history, methods and productivity of Hawaiian describes fishponds as an important future source of protein and recommends their restoration as a way to help decrease Hawaii's dependency on imported food sources.

• Kelly, Marion. Loko I‘a O He‘eia: He‘eia Fishpond, 2nd ed. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Department of Anthropology, 2000.
UHM Call No: DU624.A1 B47 no.75-2
Summary: This description of He‘eia Fishpond in Windward Oahu in its historical and legemdary context. Includes descriptions of how fish were actually caught in the pond. Second edition includes additional papers on He‘eia Fishpond and Kane‘ohe Bay.

• Kelly, Marion. Some Legendary and Historical Aspects of He‘eia Fishpond, Ko‘olau, O‘ahu. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Dept. of Anthropology, 1973.
UHM Call No: DU629.H44 K45 1973 Hawaiian
Summary: Kelly describes some of the legends associated with He‘eia Fishpond and details the history of caretakers of the pond. She also describes the techniques used to maintain the pond and cultivate fish within the pond.

• Kikuchi, William K. “Prehistoric Hawaiian Fishponds.” Science 193, no. 4250 (23 July 1976): 295-299.
Available from JSTOR
Summary: Kikuchi argues that the complex aquacultural system of fishponds was one of the reasons that Hawai‘i developed a complex, highly stratified society.

• Manu, Moke and others. Hawaiian Fishing Traditions. Edited by Dennis Kawaharada. Honolulu: Kalamaku Press, 1992.
UHM Call No: GR110.H3 H37 1992
Summary: Each story of Hawaiian fishing traditions in this collection is followed by analysis of the tale within its historical and social context. Included is the story of Ku‘ula-kai, Hawaiian god of fishing, and analysis of how a traditional Polynesian war god (Ku) became associated with fishponds in Hawai‘i.

• Miller, Grace M. “America, Hawai‘i and the Sea: The Impact of America on the Hawaiian Maritime Mode of Production 1778-1850.” Ph.D. dissertation., University of Hawai‘i, 1986.
UHM Call No: AC1.H3 no.2047 Hawaiian
Summary: Describes use of the sea in precontact Hawai‘i and changes resulting from American contact. Includes brief mentions of fishponds and their destruction.

• Newman, T. Stell. “Man in the Prehistoric Hawaiian Ecosystem.” In A Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands: Selected Readings, ed. E. Alison Kay, 559-603. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai‘i, 1972.
UHM Call No: QH198.A1 K39
Summary: The author examines the ways in which the marine and land ecosystems influenced ancient Hawaiian culture and the ways Hawaiian culture affected the ecosystems. Includes a brief description of fishponds, which the author offers as the only major way in which Hawaiians affected the marine ecosystem.

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Inventories and Site Surveys

• Cobb, John N. “The Commercial Fisheries.” In Section III of The Aquatic Resources of the Hawaiian Islands, eds. David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren Evermann, 746-750. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1905.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian QL636.5.H3 J56 v.2 pt. 2
Summary: This report on commercial fisheries in Hawai‘i includes a brief description of fishponds and some of the legends surrounding them. Cobb notes that about half of the fishponds were already no longer in use and offers some reasons for this. Includes photos of a fishpond in Waikiki and list of existing fishponds with their status and acreage.

• Cobb, John N. The Commercial Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands in 1903. Appendix to the report of the commissioner of fisheries to the secretary of commerce and labor for the year ending June 30, 1904. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1905, 473-478.
UHM Call No: SH319.H3 C63 Hawaiian
Summary: This report examines the production of commercial fisheries in Hawai‘i in 1903, including commercial fishponds. Includes data on estimated 1903 value of existing fishponds and maintenance and yield statistics of operational fishponds.

• Devaney, Dennis M., Marion Kelly, Polly Jae Lee and Lee S. Motteler. Kane‘ohe: A History of Change. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1982.
UHM Call No: DU629.K27 K35 1982
Summary: This report on the history of land and water use in the Kane‘ohe Bay area was originally commissioned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and includes a section on the fishponds of Kane‘ohe Bay. This section, written by Marion Kelly, describes historical and existing fishponds of the area and their use. Includes 15 land and aerial photos of the area fishponds taken between 1887-1976.

• DHM Planners Inc. and Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Applied Research Group, Public Archaeology Section. Hawaiian Fishpond Study: Islands of O‘ahu, Moloka‘i and Hawai‘i. Honolulu: DHM Planners, 1989.
UHM Call No: SH35 .H3 D46 1989
Summary: This study, commissioned by the State Department of Land and Natural Resources, inventories fishponds on the islands of O‘ahu, Moloka‘i and Hawai‘i, offering in-depth reports of selected fishponds including maps and photographic documentation. The study also recommends appropriate fishponds for restoration or preservation and suggests alternative uses for those not suitable for rehabilitation.

• DHM Planners Inc., Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Applied Research Group, Public Archaeology Section and Moon, O'Connor, Tam & Yuen. Hawaiian Fishpond Study: Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, Lana‘i and Kaua‘i. Honolulu: DHM Planners, 1990.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 D46 1990
Summary: Building on a previous study of the fishponds of O‘ahu, Moloka‘i and Hawai‘i, this study inventories fishponds on the islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, Lana‘i and Kaua‘i, offering in-depth reports of selected fishponds including maps and photographic documentation over three volumes. The study also recommends appropriate fishponds for restoration or preservation and suggests alternative uses for those not suitable for rehabilitation. This volume also outlines the environmental permit and review requirements required for restoring fishponds.

• DHM Planners Inc., Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Applied Research Group, Public Archaeology Section and Moon, O'Connor, Tam & Yuen. Hawai‘i In-Depth Studies: Hawaiian Fishpond Study. Honolulu: DHM Planners, 1990.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 D46 1990b
Summary: Volume II of Hawaiian Fishpond Study: Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, Lana‘i and Kaua‘i. This volume details fishponds on the island of Hawai‘i.

• DHM Planners Inc., Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Applied Research Group, Public Archaeology Section and Moon, O'Connor, Tam & Yuen. Maui, Lana‘i and Kaua‘i In-Depth Studies: Hawaiian Fishpond Study. Honolulu: DHM Planners, 1990.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 D46 1990c
Summary: Volume III of Hawaiian Fishpond Study: Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, Lana‘i and Kaua‘i. This volume details fishponds on the islands of Maui, Lana‘i and Kaua‘i.

• Estioko-Griffin, Agnes. An Inventory of Fishponds, Island of Moloka‘i. Honolulu : A. Estioko-Griffin, 1987.
UHM Call No: SH35 .H3 E88 1987
Summary: This inventory describes fishponds on Moloka‘i and classifies them into three categories: ponds significant for their information content and excellent examples of a site type/construction; ponds significant solely for their information content; and ponds that appear to have been destroyed.

• Henry, Bud. An Inventory and Status of Recognizable Fishponds Along the Kane‘ohe Bay Shoreline … or "Where Have All the Fishponds Gone?" Lanikai, Hawai‘i: 1975.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 H46 1975 Hawaiian
Summary: Henry, a geographer, answers the question "where have all the fishponds gone?" through map and photo analysis and anecdotal evidence. He found that the number of fishponds in Kane‘ohe Bay was reduced from 20 to 6 between 1943 and 1975, with the majority of the ponds filled in between the mid-1940's to mid-1950's for residential development and military base expansion.

• Kikuchi, William. “Hawaiian Aquacultural System.” Ph.D. dissertation., University of Arizona, 1973.
UHM Call No: SH133.H3 .K55
Summary: This dissertation is an in-depth study of Hawaiian aquaculture as a whole, considering scientific, socio-political, economic and religious aspects in its exploration of the control and capture of fish in Hawaiian society. Inventories known Hawai‘i aquacultural sites and includes maps identifying locations of historic fishponds.

• Kikuchi, William K. and John C. Belshe. Examination and Evaluation of Fishponds on the Leeward Coast of the Island of Hawai‘i. Honolulu: 1971.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian SH133.H3 K54
Summary: The authors identify and catalog 64 fishponds along the western coast of Hawai‘i Island between Miloli‘i and Kawaihae. The ponds are evaluated for their physical, cultural, wildlife and economic attributes.

• Maciolek, John A. and Richard E. Brock. Aquatic Survey of the Kona Coast Ponds, Hawai‘i Island. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant Program, 1974.
UHM Call No: GC1.H383 no.74-4
Summary: A general scientific survey of the ponds dotting the Kona Coast of Hawai‘i Island, including some Hawaiian fishponds. The researchers examined pond distribution, pond basin morphology, water character, riparian and aquatic flora and aquatic fauna.

• McAllister, J. Gilbert. Archaeology of O‘ahu. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1933.
UHM Call No: AM101.B442 no.104 Hawaiian
Summary: McAllister surveys known archaeological sites on O‘ahu, including 97 fishponds. In addition to the site survey, this work includes background information on fishponds and their construction.

• Sterling, Elspeth P. and Catherine C. Summers. Sites of O‘ahu. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1978.
UHM Call No: DU628.O3 S8 1993
Summary: This site survey of the island of O‘ahu includes several fishponds. Offers brief descriptions of fishponds and legends associated with their general area. Includes maps showing fishpond locations. Generally, textual descriptions for the various sites are not as thorough as in Moloka‘i: A Site Survey.

• Summers, Catherine C. Moloka‘i: A Site Survey. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Department of Anthropology, 1971.
UHM Call No: GN4.P32 no.14
Summary: This site survey of the island of Moloka‘i includes several fishponds. Includes descriptions of the fishponds and examples of some of the lore that surrounds them, taken from various primary sources.

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• Apple, Russell Anderson and William Kenji Kikuchi. Ancient Hawai‘i Shore Zone Fishponds: An Evaluation of Survivors for Historical Preservation. Honolulu: Office of the State Director, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, 1975.
UHM Call No: SH133 .H3 A66
Summary: This study recommends 56 fishpond remnants for historic preservation based on National Register criteria for significance and integrity. The authors rate the basin, contents and setting of each fishpond based on the amount of work necessary to restore the element to its ideal.

• Fishpond ‘Ohana Restoration~Maui, “Ko‘ie‘ie Loko I‘a,” For Maui.
Available Online
Summary: Web site of Fishpond ‘Ohana Restoration~Maui, which is dedicated to the restoration and maintenance of Ko‘ie‘ie Loko I‘a in Kihei, Maui. Site includes information about ForMaui and Ko‘ie‘ie Loko I‘a and history of Hawaiian fishponds in general.

• Bond, Jr., Stanley and Richard Gmirkin. “Restoring a Part of Hawaii's Past: Kaloko Fishpond Restoration.” Ecological Restoration 21, no. 4 (December 2003): 285-289.
Available online from Academic Search Premier
Summary: This article describes the effort to refurbish Kaloko Fishpond along the Kona coast of Hawai‘i Island. Includes history of the fishpond from ancient Hawaiian times through to contemporary restoration efforts and description of the process to rebuild the pond's seawall.

• Hawaiian Fishpond Revitalization Project. Hawaiian Fishpond Revitalization: Proceedings of Hana Symposiium II September 22-24, 1993. Hawaiian Fishpond Revitalization Project, 1993.
UHM Call No: SH157.85.F52 H36 1993 Hawaiian
Summary: Proceedings of the second symposium on Hawaiian fishponds held at Hana, Maui. Includes summaries of presentations on the historical and cultural backgrounds of Hawaiian fishponds, the problems and issues of Hawaiian fishponds, and the interrelationship of culture and technology in fishpond revitalization. Includes resulting recommendations for restoring fishponds.

• Hawaiian Fishpond Revitalization Project. Hawaiian Fishpond Revitalization: A Manual. Hawaiian Fishpond Revitalization Project, 1993.
UHM Call No: SH157.85 .F52 H38 1993 Hawaiian
Summary: This guide takes potential fish farmers step-by-step through the fishpond restoration process, from permits required and physical reconstruction to obtaining fry, feeding and harvesting. Includes troubleshooting guide and sample forms and checklists to assist the restoration process.

• Madden, William D. and Craig L. Paulsen. The Potential for Mullet and Milkfish Cutlure in Hawaiian Fishponds. Honolulu: Department of Planning and Economic Development, 1977.
UHM Call No: SH35 .H3 .M34
Summary: This report for the State Department of Planning and Economic Development surveyed 67 existing Hawaiian fishponds for their suitability for restoration and future cultivation of mullet (‘ama‘ama) and milkfish (awa). The report identifies and describes the 28 fishponds most suitable for restoration, and offers recommendations to establish or increase fish production in the ponds.

• Takahashi, Chie. Restoration of Huilua Fishpond. Honolulu: Marine Option Program, University of Hawai‘i, 1999.
UHM Call No: DU624.R47 no.4 Hawaiian
Summary: Provides an overview of the history and restoration of Huilua Fishpond on O‘ahu.

• Tamaru, Clyde S. and Christine Carlstrom-Trick. “Hawaiian Coastal Fishponds, an Ancient System for Sustainable Aquaculture.” In Aquaculture Resource Development in Pacific Islands: Cultural and Community Influences, Sustainability, Technological Applications and Commercial Opportunities, 49-54. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant College Program, 1998.
UHM Call No: Hawaiian GC1 .U252 no.99-03
Summary: This conference paper provides a brief overview of the history of Hawaiian fishponds and a look at what has been done in efforts to restore ponds to working order. The authors briefly consider questions of cost and maintenance as they look for fishpond success stories.

The Fishpond News. 1989-1990.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 F57 Hawaiian
Summary: Newsletter provides updates from Hui o Kuapa, the group working to restore Molokai's ‘Ualapu‘e Fishpond.

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Restoration – Moloka‘i

• Farber, Joseph M. Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds: Can Restoration Succeed on Moloka‘i? Encinitas, Calif.: Neptune House, 1997.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 .F362 1997
Summary: This work offers strategies for restoration of fishponds on Moloka‘i, considering the historical context of Hawaiian fishponds and previous attempts to restore them. Farber, a former employee of the State Department of Land and Natural Resources who worked to obtain approval for permits for fishpond restoration, offers an inside view of some of the obstacles impeding the restoration process.

• Farber, Joseph. Community-Based Planning in the Coastal Zone: The Case of Moloka‘i Fishponds: Problems and Potential. Plan B paper, Master of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 1996.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 F36 1996 Hawaiian
Summary: This paper offers strategies for restoration of fishponds on Moloka‘i, considering the historical context of Hawaiian fishponds and previous attempts to restore them. The author examines some of the obstacles impeding fishpond restoration in the case of Moloka‘i, arguing that regulations designed to protect the coastal zone from rampant development actually prevents community-based restoration efforts as large commercial developers are the only ones with the resources to navigate the permitting process. An early version of Farber's “Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds: Can Restoration Succeed on Moloka‘i?”

• Farber, Joseph M. “The Historic Fishponds of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i,” Coastlines: Information about Estuaries and Near Coastal Waters 8, no. 2 (Spring 1998).
Online e-journal
Summary: Offers a brief overview of restoration efforts of Moloka‘i fishponds.

• University of Hawai‘i, Dept. of Urban & Regional Planning, Practicum Class. Moloka‘i Fishpond Master CDUA Project. Honolulu: 1993.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 M647 1993 Hawaiian
Summary: In an effort to streamline the regulatory process for community-based fishpond restoration, the Aquaculture Development Program of the Department of Land and Natural Resources, with the help of a UH graduate class, developed this proposal for a Master Conservation District Use Application (CDUA). The MCDUA would approve restoration for traditional use only of 38 Moloka‘i fishponds identified as having restoration potential.

• Wyban, Carol Araki, ed. Proceedings of the Governor's Moloka‘i Fishpond Restoration Workshop, September 6, 1991, Mitchell Pauoli Center, Kaunakakai, Moloka‘i. Honolulu: Office of Hawaiian Affairs, 1991.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 .G68 1991
Summary: Proceedings of the Governor's Moloka‘i Fishpond Restoration Workshop held in September 1991. Includes historical overview, contemporary perspectives of current state and potential value of fishponds, explanations of laws and regulations affecting fishpond restoration, and discussion of community concerns. Also includes summary of recommendations and samples of the applications and permits required for the restoration process.

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• Bigelow, Keith A. and others. Assessment of the Mangrove Ecosystem of West Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, with Additional Site Surveys of Moanui Beach Park and Ualapu‘e Fishpond. Honolulu: University of Hawa‘i, Marine Option Program, 1989.
UHM Call No: SD397.M25 U65 1989 Hawaiian
Summary: This study examines the advancement of mangroves along Molokai’s southern coast, and their effects on coral reefs and fishponds. The study also assesses the status of ‘Ualapu‘e fishpond and its restorability.

• Choy, Shelley, Norman K. Nakamura, Dwight H. Kondo, Michael H. Maruyama and Sherwood D. Maynard. The Mokauea Fishpond Project: A Beginning – The History, the Accomplishments from September 1980 through March 1981. Honolulu: Marine Option Program, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 1981.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 M64 1981
Summary: This report describes the restoration of Mokauea Fishpond in Ke‘ehi Lagoon and the results of studies of the pond conducted by University of Hawai‘i students to determine if the pond could support fish culture. Also details the project history through the restoration process.

• Choy, Shelley, William Piazzie, Brian Atchison and Sherwood Maynard. The Mokauea Fishpond Project: Phase II – April 1981-March 1982. Honolulu: Marine Option Program, University of Hawai‘i, 1982.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 M64 1982 Hawaiian
Summary: A follow-up to The Mokauea Fishpond Project: A Beginning, the authors report some difficulty in increasing numbers of desired milkfish and mullet, citing large amounts of invasive tilapia as a factor. Includes data collected by Marine Option Program students while monitoring the fishpond.

• Dahiell, Eugene P. and others. Waikalua Loko Fishpond Preservation Plan: Kane‘ohe, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Honolulu: E.P. Dashiell, 1995.
UHM Call No: GN799.F5 D37 1995 Hawaiian
Summary: Report submitted to the Historic Preservation Division of the DLNR outlines plan to preserve Kaneohe’s Waikalua Loko, as required in conjunction with expansion plans for the Bayview Golf Course. The report describes the current state of the pond and the developer’s intended activities to further pond preservation, which stop short of restoring Waikalua Loko for use.

• Hammatt, Hallett H., Gerald Kamalu Ida and William H. Folk. Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Survey of Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishponds, Hanalei, Halele‘a, Kaua‘i Island. Lawa‘i: Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc., 1981.
UHM Call No: DU629.H387 H36 1981 Hawaiian
Summary: This report offers recommendations for proposed development of marshland in conjunction with construction of the Princeville Marriot Hotel at Pu‘u Poa. In addition to sanctioning the filling of part of the marsh for hotel construction, the report recommends restoring Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond, described as the only pond found on Kaua‘i with a true sea wall.

• Kikuchi, William K. The Chronology and Palynology of Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond: Ahupua‘a of Hanalei, Halele‘a District, Island of Kaua‘i. Oma‘o, Kaua‘i: ARCHAIOS, 1991.
UHM Call No: GN875.H3 K47 Hawaiian
Summary: Kikuchi takes core samples from Kamo‘omaika‘i Fishpond on Kaua‘i to examine the contents of the fishpond and radiocarbon date some of the samples.

• Leber, Kenneth M., Robert Nishimoto and Mark Brooks. Investigation of Mullet Net Pen Stocking Densities in Coastal Fishponds For a Stock Enhancement Nursery Program: Final Report. Waimanalo: The Oceanic Institute, 1994.
UHM Call No: SH351.M8 L43 1994a Hawaiian
Summary: This work reports the investigators' findings of effective net pen designs for mullet nursery systems and optimal stocking density of juvenile mullet in net pens. The investigators also compare the growth and survival of mullet in net pens with land-based tank culture and establishes preliminary economic data for use in analysis of the cost of net pen operations and production. Also includes general analysis of current fishpond conditions statewide.

• Oceanic Institute. A Proposal for the Establishment of a Brackish-Water Fish Culture Laboratory in Hawai‘i. Makapuu Point, O‘ahu: Oceanic Institute, 1965
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 025 Hawaiian
Summary: The Oceanic Institute proposes to restore ancient Hawaiian fishponds to study the rearing of milkfish and mullet in brackish-water ponds, with the goal of applying the acquired knowledge to pond culture in developing nations to enhance human nutrition. The Institute proposes to examine fish breeding and feed, to conduct a comparative environmental and biological study of a group of ponds, and to train technicians from user cultures in the new knowledge and techniques developed.

• Sinoto, Aki. Archaeological Pre-Stabilization Assessment of Huilua Fishpond, Kahana, O‘ahu Island. Honolulu: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Department of Anthropology, 1979.
UHM Call No: DU629.K24 S56 1979 Hawaiian
Summary: This report for the Oceanic Institute recommends against future archaeological work at Huilua Fishpond, determining that there is little possibility for recovery of prehistoric data at the site. However, the report does recommend restoration of Huilua pond to the historic period around 1920.

• Yent, Martha. Field Inspection of Eroding Cultural Deposit at Huilua Fishpond, Kahana Valley State Park, Koolauloa, O‘ahu. Honolulu: State of Hawai‘i, Dept of Land and Natural Resources, Division of State Parks, 1981.
UHM Call No: DU629.K24 Y48 1981 Hawaiian
Summary: Report on the erosion of a sand dune at Huilua Fishpond on O‘ahu. The authors recommend protecting the site from further erosion due to the significance of the deposit the site consists of.

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Studies – Circulation

• Ertekin, R.C., H. Sundararagharavan and A.T.F.M. (Sander) van Stiphout. Moloka‘i Fishpond Tidal Circulation Study. Honolulu: Department of Ocean Engineering, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 1996.
Online PDF
Summary: In addition to surveying fishponds for possible restoration, the authors examined circulation characteristics of fishponds. By examining data collected at the restored One Ali‘i fishpond, the authors offer recommendations for restoration of fishpond walls and gates to improve circulation and reduce silt buildup that can reduce the efficiency of a fishpond.

• Sundararagharavan, H. and R.C. Ertekin. Tidal-Jet Redirection and Temporal Gate Opening in a Hawaiian Fishpond. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant College Program, 1997.
Online PDF
Summary: An extension of the authors’ Moloka‘i Fishpond Tidal Circulation Study, this study examines the circulation effects of redirecting incoming tidal jets near gates and opening or closing two gates at different times. The study concluded that both techniques significantly improved tidal circulation within a fishpond.

• Weidenbach, M.E. “Fishpond Study Reveals Ancient Know-How.” Makai, July 1997, 2-3.
UHM Call No: GC1.M365
Summary: Reports on a study of fishpond design and water circulation characteristics conducted by researchers from the Sea Grant College Program. Offers a brief synopsis of Moloka‘i Fishpond Tidal Circulation Study.

• Yang, Liqun. A Circulation Study of Hawaiian Fishponds. Honolulu: 2000.
Online PDF
Summary: This master's thesis extends previous fishpond circulation studies, using data from One Ali‘i fishpond on Moloka‘i and Waikalua fishpond on O‘ahu to study the effects of stream runoff and wind stress on circulation within a fishpond.

• Yang, Liqun, H. Sundararagharavan and R.C. Ertekin. Hawaiian Fishpond Studies: Web Page Development and the Effect of Runoff From the Streams on Tidal Circulation. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant College Program, 1999.
Online PDF
Summary: A combination of two articles in one, this paper first describes the content of a Web page on Hawaiian fishponds. The second part of the report considers the case of Keawanui Fishpond and the effects of one or two gates on circulation. The study also re-models One Ali‘i fishpond to consider the effects of stream runoff.

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Studies – Economic

• Fleming, Kent, Graydon Keala and William Monahan. “The Economics of Revitalizing Hawaiian Fishpond Production.” Agribusiness, February 1995.
UHM Call No: HD9007.H3 A37 no.9 Hawaiian
Summary: Using data gathered from currently operating fishponds, the authors create and economic model of fishpond production for the revitalization of Hawaiian fishponds. In their model, the authors found fishpond revitalization to be marginally profitable.

• Kam, Lotus E., Francisco J. Martinez-Cordero, Pingsun Leung and Anthony C. Ostrowski. “Economics of Milkfish (Chanos Chanos) Production in Hawai‘i.” In Aquaculture Economics & Management 7 (1-2) (2003): 95-123.
UHM Call No: HD9450.1 .A69
Summary: The authors conduct a feasibility analysis of commercially raising milkfish (awa) in three different aquacultural models – milkfish pond system, milkfish tank system and Hawaiian fishponds. The Hawaiian fishpond, with relatively low variable and infrastructure costs, was the only system with positive returns in current market conditions.

• Martinez-Cordero, Francisco J., Pingsun Leung, Anthony C. Ostrowski and Michael D. Chambers. “Profitability Analysis of the Commercial Growout of Pacific Threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis) in Hawai‘i Under Different Production Systems.” Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 16 (1) (February 2001): 101-112.
UHM Call No: SH135.J68
Summary: The authors compare the internal rates of return (IRR) of land-based tank systems and Hawaiian fishponds to assess the profitablility of these aquacultural systems. From an economic standpoint, the study found the land-based tank system using water purchased from an aquacultural park to be the most profitable while the Hawaiian fishpond yielded the lowest IRR. The authors also conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how increased production costs would affect the IRRs of the different systems.

• Wyban, Carol Araki. Master Plan for U‘alapu‘e Ahupua‘a: Blending Tradition & Technology. Kaunakakai: Department of Business and Economic Development, 1990.
UHM Call No: SH35.H3 W92 1990
Summary: Wyban details a plan for economic development of the East End of Moloka‘i through the traditional mountain to ocean approach of Hawaiian ahupua‘a. Wyban recommends diversified agriculture and aquaculture through the revitalization of Hawaiian fishponds to serve as the backbone of economic development.

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Studies – Feeding

• Hiatt, Robert W. “Food Chains and the Food Cycle in Hawaiian Fish Ponds.” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 74 (1944): 250-280.
UHM Call No: SH1.A51
Summary: The first part of this article examines the food and feeding habits of mullet, milkfish and ten-pounders in Hawaiian fishponds. Part two examines the interaction between the different species within the fishpond, looking at interspecific competition for food and predatory habits of carnivorous fish.

• Malone, Thomas C. “Community Metabolism in a Hawaiian Fishpond and Its Relationship to Selected Environmental Factors.” Master’s Thesis, University of Hawai‘i, 1968.
UHM Call No: Q111.H3 no.675 Hawaiian
Summary: Malone measures the primary productivity of a Hawaiian fishpond, seeking insight into possible methods of increasing the quantity of food available.

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